Japan International Cooperation Agency
- Country: Japan
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The Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), established in 1974 is the primary Japanese governmental agency responsible for technical cooperation component of Japan's bilateral ODA (Japan's Official Development Assistance) program. ODA program began in 1954. The primary theme of Japan's aid program has and will continue to be "helping people to help themselves." Japan's ODA commitment has increased annually (Japan has been the world's top donor since 1991), and expanded to countries in all regions of the world. There are three kinds of Japanese ODA: (1) bilateral grants (grand aid and technical cooperation), (2) bilateral loans (loan assistance), and (3) multilateral assistance (contributions and subscriptions to international organizations).
Japan achieved UHC in 1961, and the country’s investment in health has laid the foundation for sustained economic development, social stability, and the creation of a healthy middle class, which are key ingredients for sustained economic growth. The following points highlight some salient lessons from Japan’s experience: subsidies from the General Budget and fiscal transfers across programs to harmonize benefits and copayment rates across the different health insurance programs; single payment system which sets prices and defines the benefits and conditions for reimbursement; Integration of public and private sector under single payer; Strong public health component initiated by central and local governments and long-term care insurance to separate long-term care services from medical care insurance.